Art World eBook - American Impressionist Art <Series> 

Summary - Introduction 

Impressionism, which is the cornerstone of today's modern art and is recognized as an "immortal school of painting," originated in France, but its mysterious stories and masterpieces blossomed in the United States> American Impressionism Most of the painters were students who studied art in Europe, including Paris, around the time when the first Impressionist exhibition was officially held in Europe after 1874. Although they completed their academic studies in non-Impressionist art, they were inspired by the Impressionist style while watching eight exhibitions until 1886 and visited Giverny, where Monet had settled, from 1885. 

Starting in 1885, just two years after Monet settled in 1883, a large number of American painters visited and lived together in the rural village. In the late 19th century, there was no established theoretical system for the Impressionist style in France. Also, there was no school in France to train Impressionist painters. Therefore, these artists sought inspiration from Monet's side and began experimenting with the innovative style of Impressionist painting both outdoors and indoors. 

When Germany started World War I in 1914, France became the center of the war. The number of painters and artists who lived in Giverny for 30 years from 1885 was 350 from 18 countries around the world, with the United States accounting for the majority at 300. Most of them returned to their home countries and developed full-fledged Impressionist education and creative activities, created artist villages (art colonies) throughout the country like Giverny in France, and focused on outdoor painting. 

The painter's village called Old Lyme in the northern part of New York became especially famous, and the Florence Griswold Museum of Art was established, which has become the center of Impressionism to this day. From this point on, American Impressionism began to foster a large number of second-generation, underdeveloped painters. The five volumes of American Impressionist Masterpieces selected 263 representative American Impressionist painters and included 1,700 wonderful paintings that have been recognized as masterpieces for as long as 140 years. 

Comparing them with European Impressionist painters, who were mainly introduced in Korea, will also be helpful in understanding modern art. The works included in this book were edited with a screen size of up to 1,500 pixels from the start so that clear images can be seen even when enlarged when viewed on monitors such as tablets, smartphones, and e-book readers.

[Book Introduction]

-The Ten -American Impressionist Masters  

Like Monet's Impressionist Revolution in France, The Ten starts a revolution in America. The Ten' is an abbreviation for 'Ten American Impressonism Painters'. am. They were the first group of painters to advocate Impressionism in the United States at the end of the 19th century. Impressionism officially emerged in France in 1874, 140 years ago, led by Monet. Until 1886, there were eight exhibitions over a period of 12 years and many difficulties were encountered.

However, Impressionism was a revolution that brought about a major change in the history of Western art. The spread of Impressionism in the United States took place in Boston in 1878. Afterwards, exhibitions of French Impressionist works continued across the country, including in New York. In addition, American painters who had entered Europe returned to Korea and continued to exhibit Impressionist works and provide creative and future education. 

Ten members withdrew from the conservative and commercialist Society of American Painters. The National Academy of Design, headquartered in New York, was founded in 1863, but 14 years later, in 1877, the Academy's management became conservative. For this reason, the Association of American Artists separated and became independent. Twenty years later, in 1897, The Ten rose up against the flag. All of them were advanced painters in their early 40s who had studied abroad in Europe, having studied at the renowned 'Ecole des Beaux-Arts' and 'Académie Julien' in France and the 'Royal Academy' in Germany.

The main reasons for the departure were conservative and also commercialistic, similar to the reasons given when the association separated from the National Academy of Design 20 years ago. And there were instances where association executives exhibited their works without a jury. The Society of American Artists then lost steam and came to an end in 1906. This was eight years after the formation of The Ten. In other words, it was merged back into the National Academy of Design in New York, the association's parent body. The Ten held its first exhibition at the 'Durand-Ruel Gallery' in New York in March 1898, and continued it 32 times over 20 years until 1918 in cities such as New York and Boston. It was so popular that general enthusiasts were very interested in the next exhibition.

The painters of The Ten are:

(1) William M. Chase, who became a world-renowned master of impressionism;

(2) Thomas W. Dewing, who lived with Monet in Giverny and painted fantastic women;

(3) Julian A. Weir, who became president of the National Academy of Design;

(4) Harvard Edward E. Symmans, who graduated from the university's art department;

(5) John H. Twachman, who is often compared to Monet;

(6) Joseph R. DeKemp, who graduated from the Royal Academy of Munich, Germany, and was known for his outstanding portraiture and impressionist style techniques;

(7) since 1885 Willard L. Metcalf, who painted with Monet for four years in Giverny,

(8) Frederick C. Hassam, who developed a unique impressionist style,

(9) Robert L. Reid, who made full use of the decorative impressionist style,

(10) three American presidents Edmund C. Tarbell, who painted portraits and was one of the peak painters of American Impressionism,

(11) and Frank W. Benson, who received the most art awards of all time in the United States and used the orthodox Impressionist style, are among the 11 masters. 


French and American Impressionists Differences between public opinion and social acceptance Public opinion, such as social opposition and response to Impressionism, has been greatly different since the late 19th century compared to the United States and France. First, France has a long tradition of having a strong conservative tendency toward academic art. Professors and critics in the government and art schools all unanimously opposed the new and revolutionary Impressionism.

In France, there were no official educational institutions due to opposition to Impressionism. However, the environment in the United States was significantly different from that in France. Around 1970, when Impressionism was sprouting up in France, the United States ended the Civil War of 1861 to 1865, which stabilized the country and achieved a remarkable revival across industries. Painters flocked to Paris, the capital of art, and Munich, Germany.

They were influenced by Impressionism even before returning to Korea, and after returning to Korea, they became teachers at an art school in addition to painting. In addition, painter villages such as Old Lyme, similar to Monet's Giverny in France, which began forming in 1885, were created throughout the United States. This phenomenon occurred because the American people were sensitive to the trend of innovation and were particularly interested in the new Impressionist painting style.

 And thanks to classes and painter villages at art schools, the second generation of impressionist painters were largely trained. The members of The Ten made a contribution to progressive innovation in American art in this atmosphere. Furthermore, unlike France, American Impressionism played a central role in the flow of modern art by spreading not only to the United States but also to the world since the 20th century. And, as it is today, Impressionism laid the foundation for forming an 'immortal school of painting' that will never disappear.

Publisher: Art World

Why did 350 painters from 18 countries around the world visit Giverny for 30 years?

- The first Impressionist exhibition was held in Paris for the first time in 1874. Even after 140 years, Impressionism stands tall at the center of Western art today and is called the 'mmortal school of painting.' To understand why Impressionism became an immortal school of painting, it is important to know the mother and origin of Impressionist art. It is necessary to look at the works and lives of the 350 Givernyites who lived hard in Giverny.

- Monet, who led the Impressionist exhibition at the time and became a pioneer, achieved what he had always dreamed of in 1883 at the age of 43. He settled in Giverny and began to fulfill his lifelong wish. For 30 years, from 1885, just two years later, to 1914, when World War I broke out, 350 artists from 18 countries around the world, including 300 American painters, came on their own to form a mysterious artist community (Art Colony), or painter's village.

- Most of them were American painters. At the time, the European Impressionists were alienated from the new Impressionists by persecuting and treating them coldly due to their strong obsession with traditional academic art, i.e. conservatism. There were many things that were neglected. On the other hand, after the Civil War, the United States developed into an innovative society and its values changed, and the general public was more interested in the novel style of Impressionism in art and was more reformative and progressive in accepting it.

He received the best academic education in Paris and had a future. Why did the painters who were guaranteed not return to their home countries and become Givers Niaitz? - After graduating from the best art schools in their countries, including the United States, they went to Paris to pursue higher-level art studies at the École des Beaux-Arts and the Académie Julien, where they studied at the best in portraits and portraits. They were painters who had studied academic art. Their future was guaranteed even if they returned to their home country right away.

However, they were change agents who saw a major shift in the world of art in line with the rapidly changing industrial society in the late 19th century. In other words, he headed to Giverny with the foresight to see that the trend in art would change to Impressionism, which took advantage of the aesthetic sense of human nature. At that time, Impressionism did not have an official educational institution and no theoretical system was established. However, as they explored the original form of Impressionism in Giverny, they gradually began to grasp the common denominator of the techniques and characteristics of Impressionism that began to form naturally over time.

Impressionism will continue to follow the personality and techniques of the painter. Can a creative and infinite work be created? - Monet did not have any students, but if you look at their works, no one copied Monet or drew the same picture. If you look at this book, you will see unique personalities and techniques in the various works. And Impressionism's works fulfilled 'human's primordial desire for beauty', and in the background was the incessant love of the general public.

- The main characteristic of Impressionism is first of all the diversity of motifs. In addition to the artist's free individuality, the infiniteness of expression methods can be mentioned. In particular, the individuality of the Impressionists originated from the impermanence of each stroke. - In the future, when these three elements are combined in a matrix, unimaginably infinite works and original and unique works will be created. I think it can be done. Therefore, this is the reason why Impressionism is located at the center of modern art and is called an immortal school of painting.

- In the future, there will be ample room for many excellent Impressionist painters to come out in Korea and lead the world in this field. You can look at it. Because we have inherited the best and oldest cultural wisdom from around the world. In addition, it has the highest brain level in the world and has also supported the improvement of the high economic standard. Therefore, the next step is the advancement of culture and arts. This prediction, as Baekbeom Kim Gu (Kim Gu) said, 'Rather than becoming rich, my wish is to become the most beautiful country and to possess the power of high culture without end,' just as our ancestors have done historically in the past, culture and arts

Is it worth looking at Giverny Aitz's work and life again? - In this way, 30 years have passed in a limited area called Giverny, which was the starting point of Impressionism 140 years ago. Givernia Aitz's work, which has been steadily working toward one goal, and his life filled with many unimaginable joys and sorrows will be something worth looking into. - And this is still the case. The question of Impressionism(?), which seems to be lost in a labyrinth, can be answered by knowing the true nature of Impressionism. Among them, there were many painters who stayed in Giverny for a long period of time, from 10 to 40 years.

- In general, painters receive great inspiration from various interests and encounters with many people in the process of growing up. And I get a lot of emotion even when I cover many areas. Also, throughout my life, I feel nuances that are difficult to express from other artists and numerous works. Painters are people who are sensitive to such mental stimulation in an instant. Therefore, as painters constantly seek to satisfy their creative desires, they always want to receive fresh stimulation from various people and works, as well as travel and observations.

- Therefore, this behavior is the biggest driving force behind Giverniaitz's visit to Monet. It was a cause. Therefore, this book also examines what each painter felt and experienced at turning points in their lives. In addition, although it is insufficient, the commentary included influential people and works around them.

- The painters covered in this book include 98 American painters and 16 painters from countries other than the United States, for a total of 114 artists. In other words, along with Monet, John Singer Sargent, a famous American painter, Theodore Butler, Monet's son-in-law, and Frederick Friseck, a decorative impressionist painter, are ranked at the forefront of popularity as leading American female painters. In Mary Cassette, Lila C. Perry, Cecilia Bow, etc.

Why did the avant-garde art called Impressionism in the 19th century become academic art today? - But the most important thing is the value of the work and This is because general viewers with an eye for aesthetic beauty were the biggest lovers of Impressionism. If there had been no demand for the purchase of works, how would the supply, the creative activity of artists, have continued steadily for 140 years?

For this reason, Impressionism was initially regarded as avant-garde, or avant-garde art, and was anxious and destined to disappear soon, but it soon occupied the most central position in Western art and achieved development. This is because there were entities called Monet and Giverniaites.

About the author

he author is a Western painter who graduated from college with a major in English Literature and completed a business administration course in graduate school. He studied Western painting at the Hongik University Art and Design Education Institute for several years and held 10 invited solo exhibitions at Lotte Department Store Main Branch Avenue L Gallery and KEPCO Art Center Gallery. In particular, in 2010, in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the death of An Jung-geun, portraits of 42 independence activists including Ahn Jung-geun, Yun Bong-gil, Yu Gwan-sun, and Lee Bong-chang, as well as 42 independence activists including Shin Chae-ho, Ahn Chang-ho, and Lee Hoe-young were produced for two years, making it a rare example in Korea.

A solo exhibition of portraits of activists was held. He also participated in numerous domestic and international joint exhibitions and competitions, and won prizes in the International Realistic Portrait Painting Competition at the Salmagundi Gallery, the oldest art gallery established in 1871 in Manhattan, New York, and the International Art Competition in Taiwan. Currently, he is working as a full-time artist painting landscapes and portraits at a studio in Anyang. Since 2000, 14 years ago, we have been introducing the works and lives of American and European Impressionist painters since the 19th century on our website.

His books include [SOC expansion after full implementation of local self-government system, 1995, Seoul National University Business School].